Antioxidant paraoxonase 1 activity in the metabolic syndrome.
Paraoxonase (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme closely associated with high-density lipoproteins. Low PON1 has been shown in oxidative stress-associated processes such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, advancing age, and smoking. Indeed, oxidative stress is related to the degree of insulin resistance, a key component of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the possible relationship between PON1 activity and the metabolic syndrome was investigated. From 1364 randomly recruited subjects, 285 were found to have the metabolic syndrome, according to the guidelines published by the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. PON1 activity, lipid peroxides, and PON1 codon 192 genotypes, which strongly modulate PON1 activity, were determined. Serum PON1 activity levels were found to be significantly lower, and lipid peroxide concentrations significantly higher, in subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with unaffected subjects (P = 0.033 and < 0.001, respectively). Study subjects showed a significant decreasing trend in PON1 activity levels and a significant increasing trend in lipid peroxide concentrations, with the increase in the number of metabolic disturbances. No differences in the prevalence of PON1 codon 192 genotypes were found among the categories of metabolic abnormalities. In conclusion, a greater degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome is associated with a progressively worse antioxidant/oxidant balance, which is consistent with increased oxidative stress and lower antioxidant PON1 enzymatic capacity.